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As a general rule after having lived in Spain for five years, you can apply for permanent residency, and after 10 years you can apply for Spanish nationality. Generally, Citizenship is the legal bond that unites the person with the state. It has a double aspect of being a fundamental right and constituting the legal status of persons. As a result of this relationship, the individual enjoys certain rights that he/she can demand from the state organization to which he/she belongs and the latter. In return, the government can impose the fulfilment of a series of obligations and duties.
Once you have obtained all the necessary documents for the application, you can apply online by means of a digital certificate or by legal representation or in-person (on paper) at the Civil Registry. After approximately a year, you will receive an answer online. The resolution defines whether you obtained the nationality or not. After receiving the favourable answer, you will have a total of 6 months to finish the process with the oath in the Civil Registry that corresponds to you according to your census registration. During that day, you will get a specific document to go to the police station and apply for your Spanish passport and National Identity Card (DNI).
To apply for Spanish nationality by residence you must pass the culture exam (CCSE) and the language exam (DELE). Nationals of Latin American countries are exempt from the language exam.
If you become a Spanish citizen, you must relinquish your original nationality and passport, unless you qualify for an exemption or are a citizen of one of the following countries: Chile, Peru, Paraguay, Nicaragua, Guatemala, Bolivia, Ecuador, Costa Rica, Honduras, Dominican Republic, Argentina, Colombia, Equatorial Guinea, Philippines, Andorra, Portugal, Brazil, Cuba, Mexico, Panama, Puerto Rico, El Salvador, Uruguay, Venezuela and since 2020 France.
Mexican citizens may apply for Spanish nationality after only two years of legal residence in Spain.
Currently, the Ministry is taking between 2 and 3 years to resolve Spanish citizenship applications.
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